Pengimbasan Bimtek Literasi dan Numerasi

Halo, Pembaca budiman. Senang dapat berjumpa kembali. Kali ini saya akan berbagi pengalaman mengikuti Bimtek Literasi Numerasi Angkatan 5 yang dilaksanakan dari hari Selasa, 07-12-2021 hingga Senin, 13-12-2021. Bimtek ini merupakan salah satu Seri Guru Belajar yang dilaksanakan oleh Kemendikbudristek.

Dalam seri belajar ini, saya belajar tiga modul, yaitu sebagai berikut.

Modul 1. Konsep Dasar Literasi dan Numerasi

Modul 2. Implementasi Literasi dan Numerasi dalam Pembelajaran

Modul 3. Literasi dan Numerasi di Sekolah, Keluarga, dan Masyarakat.

Setelah mempelajari semua modul, tugas akhir adalah pengimbasan. Pengimbasan saya rencanakan akan dilaksanakan pada hari Senin, 12 Desember 20210 di sekolah saya. Sasaran kegiatan ini seluruh guru tempat saya mengajar. Jenis kegiatan adalah Workshop Perencanaan Program Literasi dan Numerasi di Kelas dan Sekolah. Tempat kegiatan adalah sekolah saya sendiri. Karakteristik peserta adalah guru SMP yang meliputi semua guru mata pelajaran. Latar belakang pendidikan peserta kegiatan adalah lulusan S1 dan S2. Instansi asal peserta adalah sekolah saya, yaitu SMP Negeri 1 Turi, Sleman, Yogyakarta.

Rencana pengimbasan saya adalah sebagai berikut.

Materi pengimbasan modul 1 akan dilaksanakan dalam satu kali pertemuan dengan alokasi waktu 1 JP. Saya beraharap nanti akan ada pertanyaan dari peserta dan saya dapat menajwab pertanyaan peserta dengan baik. Materi pengimbasan modul 2 akan dilaksanakan dalam satu kali pertemuan dengan alokasi waktu 1 JP. Saya beraharap nanti akan ada pertanyaan dari peserta dan saya dapat menajwab pertanyaan peserta dengan baik. Materi pengimbasan modul 3 akan dilaksanakan dalam satu kali pertemuan dengan alokasi waktu 1 JP. Saya beraharap nanti akan ada pertanyaan dari peserta dan saya dapat menajwab pertanyaan peserta dengan baik. Jika pengimbasan sudah saya laksanakan, foto bukti pengimbasan akan saya update di sini.

Modul 1. Konsep Literasi dan Numerasi

Materi modul 1 yang akan saya imbaskan adalah mengenai konsep literasi dan numerasi. Saya akan mengawali sesi ini dengan beberapa pertanyaan terkait dengan miskonsepsi literasi dan numerasi. Miskonsepsi literasi dan numerasi antara lain sebagai berikut.

  1. Numerasi hanya berhubungan dengan proses berhitung.
  2. Numerasi adalah matematika.
  3. Numerasi menjadi tanggung jawab guru matematika saja.
  4. Level SMA tidak butuh asesmen numerasi.
  5. Numerasi butuh mata pelajaran khusus untuk mempelajari numerasi
  6. Numerasi hanya identik dengan soal cerita.

Miskonsepsi terkait dengan perkembangan literasi siswa antara lain sebagai berikut.

  1. Anak masuk SD harus sudah bisa membaca dan menulis.
  2. Ciri anak siap belajar di SD adalah mampu menangkap pesan lisan.
  3. Anak SMP kelas 1 harus sudah dapat membaca mandiri.
  4. Anak kelas 6 SD dapat menemukan pokok pikiran dalam bacaan sederhana.
  5. Tanda literasi berkembang adalah mampu menajwab soal bacaan.
  6. Cara mengukurperkembangan literasi adalah dengan tes baca dan tulis saat masuk SD.
  7. Siswa SMP kurang minat baca karena gawai.

Selanjutnya saya akan menyampaikan materi terkait dengan konsepsi literasi dan numerasi sebagai berikut. Pertama, perkembangan literasi bagi anak PAUD hingga usia 8 tahun adalah kemampuan anak dalam menerima informasi lisan dengan tepat, meynampaikan ide, gagasan dengan cara berbicara runut dan pilihan kata beragam. Stimulasi pengetahuan bahasa dapat dimulai dengan visual bunyi huruf yang dimulai dari bunyi (fonem, nada, jeda, tekanan, dan tempo).

Kedua, perkembangan literasi bagi anak SD di bawah 8 tahun seharusnya dilakukan dalam bentuk tanya jawab secara lisan. Untuk mengecek pengetahuan bunyi dapat dilakukan dengan cara mengecek bunyi yang telah dikenal, sedangkan keterampilan menulis dapat dicek dengan meminta siswa menuangkan ide dalam bentuk gambar menggunakan alat tulis.

Ketiga, perkembangan literasi bagi anak SMP adaah  keterampilan membaca untuk belajar. Guru perlu berulang-ulang melatih siswa untuk menguasai keterampilan membaca untuk belajar. Keterampilan membaca untuk belajar dapat dilatih dalam semua mata pelajaran. Anak dapat diatih dari memilih buku, menggunakan aneka ragam teknik membaca, diberi model berbagai amcam jenis teks, dan diberikan beragam tema untuk dibaca.

Dari ketiga perkembangan literasi di atas dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa perkembangan literasi adalah gambaran tentang pengetahuan bahasa (bunyi, kata, kalimat, makna, dan pragmatik), dan keterampilan berbahasa (menyimak, berbicara, membaca, dan menulis) dalam proses komunikasi baik lisan maupun tulis berdasarkan perkembangan proses berpikir. Berikut adalah komponen yang menjadi acuan perkembangan literasi.

Pada saat siswa belajar berbahasa, siswa juga belajar pengetahuan bahasa. Terdapat lima komponen pengetahuan bahasa, yaitu fonetik, semantik (makna), kalimat, kata dan pragmatik.

  1. Fonetik, yaitu hubungan simbol dan bunyi. Unsur terkecil yang berbentuk bunyi yang dapat membentuk makna disebut fonem.
  2. Semantik, yaitu makna yang terkandung dalam kata, baik kemiripan makna, persamaan makna, atau makna yang berlawanan.
  3. Kalimat, yaitu susunan kata yang memiliki makna yang utuh. Penulisan kalimat diawali dengan huruf besar dan diakhiri dengan tanda baca yang sesuai dengan jenis kalimat, seperti titik untuk kalimat pernyataan, tanda tanya untuk kalimat pertanyaan dan tanda seru untuk kalimat seru atau perintah.
  4. Kata, yaitu gabungan dari bunyi yang merujuk pada suatu makna. Kata teridir dari kata dasar dan kata berimbuhan.
  5. Pragmatik, yaitu telaah makna yang berkaitan dengan konteks pembicaraan. Pragmatik dimulai dari komunikasi lisan paling sederhana, yaitu gerak, mimik, bunyi, dan kata. Pada bahasa, teks pragmatik dimulai dari tataran wacana yang berwujud paragraf.

Perkembangan pengetahuan bahasa terdiri dari tiga fase. Pertama, fase pengetahuan bahasa. Pengetahuan komponen linguistik terdiri dari bunyi (fonem), kata, kalimat, makna (semantik) dan pragmatik. kedua, fase pengetahuan metalingusitik. Pengetahuan metalinguistik adalah kemampuan seseorang dalam menggunakan pengetahuan bahasa secara sadar dalam berkomunikasi lisan dan tulis. Ketiga, fase aplikasi pengetahuan metalinguistik, yaitu kemampuan seseorang dalam menerapkan komponen linguistik pada saat berkomunikasi lisan dan teks (tulisan/ gambar) sesuai dengan pembaca/ pendengar, tujuan, dan konteks.

Pada saat hendak menyusun program literasi di sekolah, guru dapat melihat kemampuan literasi siswa dengan melakukan hal berikut. Kelas 1 s.d. 3 SD guru dapat melihat kemampuan bahasa lisan. Kelas 4 SD ke atas dapat melihat kemampuan bahasa tulis atau teks. Siswa kelas 4 sudah berada pada tahap membaca untuk belajar. Cara mengukur kemampuan membaca adalah dengan mencari ide pokok, inferensi dan fakta bahasa (kata, kalimat, jenis kata, dan hubungan antar paragraf).

Agar program literasi dan numerasi berjalan dengan baik, guru perlu menggali informsi profil perkembangan literasi murid. Salah satu cara untuk emndapatkan profil perkembangan literasi siswa adalah dengan memetakan tiga komponen, yaitu pengetahuan bahasa, keterampilan berbahasa, dan perkembangan rposes berpikir siswa.

Untuk melaksanakan prose pemprofilan perkembangan literasi murid dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok.

  1. Kelompok kelas 1-3 SD . Pemprofilan kelompok ini dilakukan dengan menyediakan tiga topik yang dekat dengan murid, kegemaran, makanan kesukaan, tempat yang berkesan, dsb. Kemudian siswa diminta untuk memilih salah satu topik. Siapkan alat perekam dan pencatat waktu. Beri kesempatan siswa untuk ebrcerita selama satu menit. Sasaran observasidari cerita siswa adalah unsur pengetahuan bahasa (pilihan kata dan kalimat), unsur keterampilan berbahasa lisan/ berbicara (nada, tempo, jeda).
  2. Kelompok kelas 4-7. Pemprofilan dilakukan dengan menyediakan tiga topik yang dekat dengan murid, kegemaran, makanan kesukaan, tempat yang berkesan, dsb. Kemudian siswa diminta untuk memilih salah satu topik. Siapkan alat perekam dan pencatat waktu. Beri kesempatan siswa untuk menulis selama lima menit. Sasaran observasi dari tulisan siswa adalah unsur pengetahuan bahasa (pilihan kata dan kalimat), unsur keterampilan berbahasa tulis (penulisan huruf kapital, ejaan, tanda baca).
  3. Kelompok kelas 8-12. Pemprofilan dilakukan dengan menyediakan lima topik yang dekat dengan murid, kegemaran, makanan kesukaan, tempat yang berkesan, peminatan, buku/ film yang paling berkesan, dsb. Kemudian siswa diminta untuk memilih salah satu topik. Siapkan alat perekam dan pencatat waktu. Beri kesempatan siswa untuk menulis selama tiga menit. Sasaran observasi dari tulisan siswa adalah unsur pengetahuan bahasa (pilihan kata dan kalimat), unsur keterampilan berbahasa tulis (penulisan huruf kapital, ejaan, tanda baca) dan keruntutan kalimat dalam paragraf.

Modul 2. Implementasi Literasi dan Numerasi dalam Pembelajaran

Literasi dalam pembelajaran adalah proses pembelaajran yang melibatkan siswa untuk aktif membaca dalam rangka menyelesaikan masalah. Implemnetasi literasi dan numerasi di jenjang SMP dapat dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran berbasis masalah dan proyek.

Lima strategi pemahaman bacaan yang dapat diajarkan kepada siswa adalah sebagai berikut.

  1. Membuat hubungan teks dengan diri, teks dengan teks lain, teks dengan dunia luar
  2. Mengajukan pertanyaan sebelum, saat, dan sesudah membaca
  3. Membuat visualisasi dengan membuat gambar dari teks yang dibaca.
  4. Mencari informasi tersirat (inferensi) dengan menyimpulkan dari fakta-fakta yang ada dalam teks menjadi pernyataan baru, menentukan yang paling penting, dan mencari poin penting dari teks.
  5. Dibuat teks baru, dapat diwujudkan dalam peta konsep/ skema hala-hal penting teks tersebut atau pokok dan pendukung

Modul 3. Literasi di Sekolah, Keluarga, dan Masyarakat

Literasi dapat dilakukan di sekolah. Terdapat beberapa indikator literasi dan numerasi di sekolah sebagai ebrikut.

  1. Basis kelas mengacu kepada indikator sbb: a) Terjadi peningkatan terhadap jumlah pelatihan bagi guru matematika maupun guru non matematika yang ada di sekolah, b) Intensitas pemanfaatan dan penerapan program literasi numerasi dalam pembelajaran yang semakin meningkat, c) Bertambahnya jumlah pembelajaran matematika pada basis permasalahan dan pembelajaran matematika yang berbasis proyek, d) Meningkatnya jumlah pembelajaran non matematika yang mengandung unsur literasi numerasi, dan e) Adanya peningkatan terhadap kemampuan akademik murid dalam pembelajaran.
  2. Basis budaya sekolah mengacu kepada indikator sbb: a) Meningkatnya jumlah dan variasi dari bahan bacaan yang disediakan sekolah, b) Tersedianya tim literasi sekolah yang menunjang keberhasilan program literasi di sekolah, c) Terjadi peningkatan pada kualitas membaca murid, bagaimana murid beraktivitas dengan membaca buku, d) Meningkatnya jumlah kegiatan literasi numerasi yang diadakan sekolah, e) Adanya peningkatan pada jumlah penyajian informasi dalam bentuk presentasi numerasi (sebagai contoh: grafik frekuensi terhadap peminjaman buku yang ada di perpustakaan), f) Kebijakan sekolah terhadap program literasi numerasi dengan lebih jelas dan terarah, g) Meluasnya akses situs daring yang berkenaan dengan literasi numerasi sehingga membuka peluang mudahnya akses informasi di sekolah, h) Tersedianya alokasi dana pada pelaksanaan program literasi numerasi, sehingga pelaksanaan literasi dapat terealisasi dengan maksimal.

Aksi nyata program literasi dan numerasi sekolah dapat dilakukan melalui program sebagai berikut.

  1. Gerakan literasi numerasi lintas kurikulum.
  2. Pelatihan kepala perpustakaan, tenaga perpustakaan, guru terkait literasi dan numerasi.
  3. Meningkatkan sarana dan prasarana dan perluasan akses pengembangan literasi dan numerasi.
  4. Tata kelola terkait manajemen sekolah.

Literasi di keluarga

Literasi dan numerasi dapat dimaknai sebagai kemampuan menalar
yang berkait dengan kemampuan analisa, sintesa dan evaluasi informasi
yang bisa ditumbuhkan dengan terintegrasi dalam kegiatan anak
sehari-hari di rumah. Literasi dan numerasi juga perlu dimaknai sebagai
pemahaman terhadap berbagai macam angka dan simbol-simbol yang
terkait dengan matematika dasar untuk memecahkan masalah praktis
dalam berbagai macam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari. Selain itu, literasi
dan numerasi juga terkait dengan kemampuan menganalisis informasi yang
ditampilkan dalam berbagai bentuk seperti grafik, tabel, bagan, dan lain
sebagainya lalu menggunakan interpretasi hasil analisis tersebut untuk
memprediksi dan mengambil keputusan. Secara sederhana, numerasi dapat
diartikan sebagai kemampuan untuk mengaplikasikan konsep bilangan dan
keterampilan operasi hitung di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari
(Kemendikbudristek, 2021; literasinusantara.com, 2021).

Literasi di keluarga dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai cara. “Misalkan dengan cara memastikan saat mendengar cerita, anak memulai
dengan menjawab pertanyaan, kemudian berhenti di tengah dan
mengkaitkan karakter cerita dengan peristiwa yang terjadi pada dirinya.
Selanjutnya anak bisa diajak menampilkan cerita dalam bentuk yang
berbeda misalnya lewat role play antara anak dengan orang tua atau
antara sesama saudaranya. Selanjutnya, kegiatan bisa juga dengan cara
membiasakan anak menghitung dan mengukur benda-benda di sekitar
rumah, mengajak anak memasak bersama dan mengukur bahan makanan
sesuai resep, mengukur suhu badan atau ruangan dan membuat grafiknya,
meminta anak untuk memperhatikan jarak dan waktu tempuh saat
bepergian, mengajak anak berbelanja, serta menghitung kebutuhan air dan
listrik setiap bulan atau tahun”.

Literasi dan Numerasi di Masyarakat

Undang-undang perpustakaan nomor 43 tahun 2007 pasal 48 tentang
Pembudayaan Kegemaran Membaca. Dalam ayat 1 disebutkan bahwa pembudayaan membaca dilakukan melalui keluarga, satuan pendidikan, dan masyarakat. Undang-undang ini mengamanatkan kepada semua warga negara untuk ikut serta secara aktif meningkatkan literasi dan numerasi di kalangan masyarakat dengan merintis perpustakaan umum dan PKBM.

Demikian garis besar materi yang akan saya imbaskan. Dengan pengimbasan, makin banyak materi yang saya pahami terkait dengan konsep literasi dan numerasi, bagaimana saya dapat memetakan profil siswa untuk merancang program literasi dan numerasi baik di kelas, sekolah, kelaurga, dan masyarakat. Yang akan saya lakukan agar saya lebih paham materi di atas adalah mencari referensi lain sebagai pelengkap maupun pembanding. Materi yang ingin saya pelajari lebih lanjut adalah bagaimana menerapkan literasi numerasi di lingkungan keluarga dan masyarakat. Materi tersebut perlu saya dalami lebih lanjut karena saya belum begitu paham sedangkan saya merasa dua hal tersebut sangat penting dalam meningkatkan kemmapuan literasi dan numerasi siswa.

Demikian yang bisa saya cerikan kali ini. Semoga ada yang dapat diambil manfaatnya. Sampai jumpa kembali di lain kesempatan dengan tema berbeda.

 

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