V1 atau V1+s/es dan Do atau Does (How to Make English Sentences in Simple Present Tense?)

Hello, great learners. Nice to see you again. This time, I want to talk about how to make sentences with V1 and V1+s/es. Do you know the difference of them? Apakah kaliam sudah pernah mendengar apa itu V1 atau V1+s/es?

A. V1 atau V1+s/es

Sebelum saya jelaskan bagaimana membuat kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris, saya ingin menjelaskan terlebih dahulu apa itu verb, verb 1, verb 1+s/es dan apa fungsinya dalam bahasa Inggris.

Verb atau yang sering diaingkat V dalam bahasa Indonesia disebut kata kerja. What is a verb? Apakah kata kerja itu? Kata kerja adalah kata yang menunjukkan bahwa seseorang atau sesuatu melakukan pekerjaan, misalnya membaca, bergerak, berjalan, makam, pergi, berburu, dsb.

Verb 1 sering disingkat V1. Verb 1 dalam bahasa Indonesia disebut kata kerja dasar. Kata dasar adalah kata kerja yang tidak mendapat imbuhan apapun, misalnya kata dasar dari kata memakan adalah makan. Sedangkan Verb 1+s/es adalah kata kerja berimbuhans/es.

Meskipun keduanya memiliki bentuk yang berbeda, baik V1 maupun V1+s/es memiliki arti yang sama, misalnya kata eat dan eats memiliki arti yang sama yaitu makan atau memakan. Eat adalah kata kerja dasar sedangkan eats adalah kata kerja dasar yang mendapat imbuhan –s/es.

V1 dan V1+s/es memiliki fungsi yang sama. Keduanya berfungsi untuk menceritakan kebiasaan atau rutinitas yang sekarang masih dilakukan. Fungsi lain adalah menceritakan fakta sekarang yang tidak bisa disanggah atau disebut kebenaran umum. Penggunaan V1 dan V1+s/es adalah ciri dari Simple Present Tense. Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut yang menggunakan simple present tense sebagai berikut.

1. Kebiasaan (habit) atau rutinitas (routine) sekarang

I drink milk every morning adalah contoh kalimat yang menunjuk kebiasaan atau rutinitas saya yang masih saya lakukan sekarang, yaitu saya minum susu setiap pagi. Berikut contoh karangan tentang aktivitas sehari-hari yang sekarang masih dilakukan.

Descriptive text about daily routines (Taken from: https://cdn.ampproject.org/v0.js)

2. Fakta sekarang

My father works as a teacher adalah contoh fakta sekarang bahwa ayah saya seorang guru. 

3. Fakta sekarang yang tidak bisa disanggah atau kebenaran umum (general truth)

The sun rises in the norning adalah contoh kebenaran umum atau general truth karena matahari terbit setiap pagi adalah fakta yang tidak bisa kita sanggah atau bantah kebenarannya. Semua orang pasti setuju jika matahari terbit setiap pagi.

Intinya, jika kalian ingin menceritakan rutinitas atau kebiasaan yang sekarang masih kalian lakukan atau ingin menceritakan suatu fakta sekarang dan fakta sekarang yang tidak dapat dibantah, maka kalian harus menggunakan Verb 1 (atau disingkat V1) atau Verb 1+s/es (atau disingkat V1+s/es).

Pertanyaannya sekarang adalah kapan kalian harus menggunakan V1 dan kapan mennggunakan V1+s/es? Perhatikan penjelasan berikut.

  1. Verb 1 (V1) digunakan ketika subyek kalimatnya adalah they, we, I, you. Contoh: They study every day.
  2. Verb 1+s/es (V1+s/es) digunakan ketika subyek kalimatnya adalah he, she, it. Conroh: She studies every day.

Sekarang kita akan belajar bagaimana cara memberikan imbuhan s/es pada kata kerja atau verb 1 (V1). Pada umumnya kata kerja ditambah –s (misalnya, drinks, eats, runs, swims, walks, dsb) sehingga yang akan saya bahas selanjutnya adalah bagaimana memberikan imbuhan –espada kata kerja. Perhatikan penjelasan berikut.

  1. Jika huruf terakhir dari kata kerja adalah huruf in ch, -ss, –sh, -x or zz, kita tambahkan imbuhan  es (Misalnya, watch menjadi watches, pass menjadi passes, wash menjadi washes, mix menjadi mixes, dan buzz menjadi buzzes).
  2. Jika huruf terakhir dari kata kerja berakhiran dengan huruf konsonan atau huruf mati diikuti huruf -y (konsonan+y) maka huruf –y diubah menjadi –i kenudian ditambahkan –es (Misalnya, study menjadi studies, cry menjadi cries)
  3. Perkecualian untuk do menjadi does, go menjadi goes, dan have menjadi has.

Sekarang kita coba ya membuat kalimat menggunakan kata kerja atau verb, baik V1 dan V1+s/es. Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut ya.

  1. I study English everyday.
  2. My sister studies English everyday.

Dari contoh kalimat di atas, apa yang bisa kalian simpulkan mengenai pola kalimatnya? Coba dijawab dulu ya dan cobalah kamu simak video berikut. Apakah kesimpulan yang kalian buat sudah benar?

Dari kalimat di atas, dapat kita simpulkan bahwa kalimat di atas terdiri dari unsur subject/ S (I dan my sister), kemudian diikuti kata kerja V1 (study) atau V1+s/es (studies), lalu diikuti object/ O (English), dan kata keterangan atau adverb/ adv (everyday). Jadi pola kalimat di atast adalah sebagai berikut.

S + V1/ V1+s/es + O + adv

Jika mempertinbangkan subyek kalimat mana yang menggunakan V1 dan V1+s/es, maka pola kalimat di atas dapat kita bagi menjadi dua macam

They/ we/ I/ you + V1 + O + Adv

He/ she/ it + V1+s/es + O + adv

Bagaimana? Apakah kalian sudah paham kapan kalian harus mennggunakan V1 atau V1+s/es? Agar kalian lebih paham, baca kesimpulan berikut ya.

  1. V1 atau V1+s/es digunakan ketika kita ingin menceritakan rutinitas atau kebiasaan sekarang (misalnya, I drink milk every day)  dan kebenaran umum/ fakta sekarang yang tidak dapat dibantah (misalnya, The sun rises every morning).
  2. Verb 1 (V1) digunakan ketika subyek kalimatnya adalah they, we, I, you (Misalnya, they study every day), sedangkan Verb 1+s/es (V1+s/es) digunakan ketika  subyek kalimatnya adalah he, she, it (Conroh: She studies every day.)
  3. Pola kalimat menggunakan V1 dan V1 +s/es adalah sebagai berikut. They/ we/ I/ you + V1 + O + Adv dan He/ she/ it + V1+s/es + O + adv.

Nah, sekarang tiba saatnya kalian berlatih untuk mengecek pemahaman kalian ya.

Task 1. Add the base verbs (V1) below with s/es.

  1. Put = ………………,…….
  2. Drop = ………………,…….
  3. Enjoy = ………………,…….
  4. Match. = ………………,…….
  5. Wish. = ………………,…….
  6. Fix. = ………………,…….
  7. Miss. = ………………,…….
  8. Try. = ………………,…….
  9. Do. = ………………,…….
  10. Have. = ………………,…….

Task 2. Write down the correct form of the verbs in the brackets

  1. I …………. (wake) up at 4 o’clock every morning.
  2. We …………. (play) football every Sunday.
  3. My father …………. (go) toe work every day.
  4. Her mother …………. (cook) every morning.
  5. Dino and Dini usually …………… (do) homework together.

Task 3. Write sentences with the subjects and verbs provided.

  1. I/ sleep
  2. He/ play
  3. We/ go
  4. My family and I/ clean
  5. Dita/ sing
  6. Alex and her friend/ do
  7. My cat/ eat
  8. The bird/ fly
  9. The moon/ appear
  10. The river/ flow

B. Do atau Does

Do atau Does disebut sebagai kata bantu kerja (helping verb). Kata kerja bantu digunakan dalam kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. 

Do digunakan untuk subyek they, we, I, you.

Does digunakan untuk subyek he, she, it.

Contoh penggunaan do atau does dalam kalimat negatif. 

  1. I do not know her name.
  2. She does not live in Yogyakarta.

Dari dua contoh kalimat di atas dapat kita simpulkan bahwa do atau does digunakan dalam kalimat negatif. Adapun yang harus kalian perhatikan adalah setelah do atau does harus diikuti kata not yang artinya tidak. Dari kalimat di atas, mari kita coba analisis pola kalimatnya.

I do not know her name

S do not  V1         O

She does not live in Yogyakarta

She does not  V1       adv

That’s the end of the lesson today. Thank you very much for reading and hopefully you get a lot. See you next time. Stay safe, happy, and healthy.

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