Hello, ninth graders. Nice to see you again. Today you are going to learn about the generic structure of a narrative text.
Masih ingat ya, materi sebelumnya tentang membandingkan fungsi sosial teks narrative. Kali ini kalian akan belajar untuk membandingkan struktur teks narrative. Let’s check it out!
Sebelum berlatih membandingkan struktur teks narrative, ada baiknya kalian mengetahui terlebih dahulu aspek dari struktur teks dan tipe petanyaan bacaan terkait dengan struktur teks.
Aspek struktur teks
- Pandangan/ maksud/ pendapat yang menjadi ide utama
- Rincian argumentasi
- Rincian deskripsi
- Rincian langkah
- Rincian peristiwa
- Rincian unsur-unsur teks
A. Pandangan/ maksud/ pendapat yang menjadi ide utama
Ide utama atau adalah ide/gagasan yang menjadi pokok pengembangan paragraf. Setiap paragraf terdapat satu ide utama/pokok dan ide utama dituangkan dalam satu kalimat utama.
Tips untuk menjawab pertanyaan tentang ide utama adalah sebagai berikut.
- Baca seluruh paragraf secara cermat.
- Carilah kalimat utama dari setiap paragraf,. Kalimat utama pada teks narrative menyuratkan atau menyiratkan siapa tokoh utamanya, setting waktu dan tempat cerita terjadi, masalah yang dihadapi oleh tokoh utama, jalan keluar atau solusi yang diambil oleh tokoh utama untuk mengatasi masalah yang dihadapi, dan hasil dari penyelesaian masalah.
- Tandailah kalimat utama dengan menggarisbawahi atau mewarnai kalimat utama tersebut.
Berikut contoh pertanyaan yang menanyakan ide utama dan perhatikan kata kunci (keyword) yang dicetak tebal..
- What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
- What does the last paragraph mainly tell about?
- The main idea of paragraph two is ….
B. Rincian argumentasi
Argumentasi adalah alasan. Pertanyaan tentang rincian argumentasi menanyakan tentang rincian alasan dari suatu tindakan, peristiwa, atau keadaan. Berikut contoh pertanyaan terkait rincian argumentasi dan perhatikan kata kunci yang dicetak tebal.
- Why did the ants keep working to look for food?
- The ants kept working to look for food because ….
C. Rincian deskripsi/ langkah/ peristiwa
Setiap pikiran utama didukung dengan gagasan-gagasan rinci (supporting ideas) untuk memperjelas pikiran utama. Gagasan rinci atau kalimat penjelas atau kalimat pendukung inilah yang dimaksud dengan rincian. Jika gagasan utama yang dijelaskan adalah deskripsi dari seseorang atau sesuatu, maka kalimat penjelasnya disebut sebagai rincian deskripsi. Jika gagasan utama yang dijelaskan adalah langkah-langkah, maka kalimat penjelasnya disebut sebagai rincian langkah. Jika gagasan utama yang dijelaskan adalah suatu persitiwa, maka kalimat penjelasnya disebut sebagai rincian peristiwa.
Berikut contoh pertanyaan terkait rincian deskripsi.
- Who won the racing?
- How fast did the turtle run?
- Based on the story it can be concluded that the ant was ….
Berikut contoh pertanyaan terkait rincian langkah.
- What should the farmer do to save Timun Mas?
- After hiding Timun Mas, the farmer ….
Berikut contoh pertanyaan terkait rincian peristiwa.
- What did the ant do during the summer season?
- When the winter came, the ants ….
D. Rincian unsur-unsur teks
Setiap teks memiliki unsur masing-masing. Unsur-unsur teks narrative adalah paragraf orientation (pengenalan tokoh utama dan seting waktu serta tempat), complication (tokoh utama mengalami masalah), resolution (tokoh utama menemukan jalan keluar), dan re-orientation (Hasil jalan keluar tokoh utama seperti apa: apakah tokoh utama berhasil atau gagal? Jika tokoh utama berhasil menyelesaikan masalahnya sehingga keadaan menjadi lebih baik maka cerita tersebut berakhir bahagia (happy ending), tetapi jika tokoh utama gagal menyelesaikan masalahnya sehingga keadaan menjadi lebih buruk maka cerita tersebut berakhir sedih (sad ending).
Berikut contoh rincian unsur-unsur teks.
- Based on the last paragraph, it can be concluded that the story …..
- The second paragraph told that the main character ….
E. Plot atau Alur
Setiap cerita memiliki terdiri dari tiga babak, yaitu babak awal, babak tengah, dan babak akhir. Urutan peristiwa dalam cerita yang meliputi ketiga babak tersebut disebut alur. Terdapat tiga jenis alur, yaitu alur maju, alur mundur, dan alur campuran. Cerita yang menggunakan alur maju bercerita dari babak awal, tengah dan akhir secara berturutan. Cerita yang menggunakan alur mundur bercerita dari babak akhir, tengah dan awal secara berturutan. Cerita menggunakan alur campuran bisa dimulai dari babak akhir, babak awal, dan babak tengah atau bisa mulai dari babak tengah, babak akhir, babak awal.
Berikut contoh soal berkaitan dengan plot atau alur.
- What happened in the beginning?
- What really happened to the ant at the end of the story?
- We can conclude from the text that ….
That is all that I can inform you. Now, it is your turn to practice. Do all the tasks, please.
Task 1. Look at the pictures and answer the questions.
- What story is picture 1?
- What do you know about story 1?
- What story is picture 2?
- What do you know about story 2?
- Which story do you want to read first?
Task 2. Read the story below to answer the questions.
Once upon a time, there was a kingdom named Prambanan. The people lived peacefully. However, soon their happy lives were disturbed by Pengging Kingdom. The king, Bandung Bondowoso, wanted to occupy Prambanan. He was a mean king.
The war between Prambanan and Pengging could not be avoided. Prambanan lost the war and led by the new king, Bandung Bondowoso. Pengging could win the war because Bandung Bondowoso had a supernatural power.
His soldiers were not only humans but also genies. Those creatures always obeyed Bandung Bondowoso. They always did whatever Bandung.
Bondowoso asked them to do. The king of Prambanan had a beautiful daughter. Her name was Roro Jonggrang. Bandung Bondowoso fell in love with her and wanted to marry her.
“If you want to marry me, you have to build a thousand of temples in just one night,” said Roro Jonggrang.
She hated Bandung Bondowoso because he made the people of Prambanan suffered.
“What? Impossible! You just gave me an excuse for not marrying me!” said Bandung Bondowoso.
But he did not give up. He asked the genies to help him. Then all those genies worked hard to build the 1.000 temples. Meanwhile, Roro Jonggrang heard from the lady-inwaiting that the building of 1.000 temples was almost finished.
She was so scared; she did not want to marry Bandung Bondowoso. And then she had a great idea. She asked all the ladies-inwaiting to help her.
“Please prepare a lot of straw and mortar. Come on! Hurry up!” said Roro Jonggrang.
All those ladies-in-waiting were confused. They did not know why Roro Jonggrang asked them to prepare a lot of straw and mortars in the middle of the night.
“Listen, all those genies are building the temples, right? We have to stop them by burning the straw and make some noise by pounding the mortar. The genies will think that sun is going to rise and they will run away. Genies are afraid of sunlight.”
It worked! All those genies thought that sun rose. They did not know the light was from the fire that burning the straw. And the noise from pounding the mortar was like the start of a new day.
Bandung Bondowoso was angry. He knew Roro Jonggrang just tricked him.
“You cannot fool me, Loro Jonggrang. I already have 999 temples. I just need one more temple. Now, I will make you the one-thousandth temple.”
With his supernatural power, Bandung Bondowoso made Roro Jonggrang a temple. Until now, the temple is still standing in Prambanan area, Central Java. And the temple is named Roro Jonggrang temple.
- What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
- Why could Pengging win the war?
- Who helped Bandung Bondowoso build the temples?
- What did Roro Jonggrang do after knowing that Bandung Bondowoso had finished 999 temples?
- Based on the story it can be concluded that the story ended ….
Task 3. Read the story below to answer the questions.
A long time ago and far, far away an old woman was sitting in her rocking chair thinking how happy she would be if she had a child. Then, she heard a knock at the door and opened it.
A lady was standing there and she said, “If you let me in, I will grant you a wish.”
The old woman let the woman in firstly because she felt pity, secondly because she knew what she’d wish for a child. After she washed the lady up and fed her, she saw that she was really beautiful.
The lady slept soundly all night long and then right before she left, she said, “Now, about your wish. What do you want?”
The lady thought about most people’s wishes to be richest in the world, most powerful person, the smartest, and the prettiest. But the old woman wished for something the lady could not believe.
She said, “I would like a child.”
“What did you say?” she asked because she was astonished at what the old lady asked for.
The old lady repeated what she said, “I would like a child.”
The lady then placed a tiny seed in the old woman’s hand and gave her instructions, “Plant this seed, water it carefully, watch over it, and give it your love. If you do all those things, then you will have a child.”
So the old woman did all of those things the lady had told her to. In a week, there was a beautiful yellow flower in place of the seed. The next day, the flower bloomed. Inside the flower was a beautiful little girl who was the size of the woman’s thumb so she a called her Thumbellina. She made her a little dress out of golden threads. Thumbellina slept in a walnut shell and brought the old woman joy and happiness.
But, one day when Thumbellina went down for her nap, a frog hopped through the open window and said, “You will be a perfect bride for my son,” and she took Thumbellina to a lily pad and hopped off to find her son.
Thumbellina cried and some little guppies heard her and chewed the roots off the lily pad to help her escape. Thumbellina’s lily pad floated away. A few hours later, she finally stopped floating. During the summer, she ate berries and drank the dew off the leaves. But then winter came and she needed shelter. A kindly mouse let her stay with it, but it said, “You’ll have to marry my friend, Mole, because I cannot keep you for another winter.”
The next day she went to see Mole. In one of tunnels, she found a sick bird and said, “Poor thing, I will bury it.” Then she found out that it was still alive and she cared for it until was ready to fly. It flew off. That fall she nearly had to marry Mole. But then she heard a familiar tweet and an idea popped up in the bird’s head.
“You can come down to the warm country,” said the bird, so Thumbellina hopped on the bird’s back and flew to the warm country. The people there who were like her renamed her Erin. She married a prince and she lived happily ever after.
- The last paragraph tell us about …
- Why was the beautiful lady called Thumbelina?
- Where did Thumbelina take a nap?
- What happened to the bird after Thumbelina cared him?
- What happened to Thumbelina at the end?
Task 4. Read again the two stories above to find the similarities and differences. Put a tick and write your answer in the right column of the table below.
That is all for today. Thank you very much for attention. See you again next time with a different topic. Bye.